Essay on political parties in india

It is too harsh a proposition to accommodate all these interests within the two spheres. So popular will very often does not get vindicated in a bi-party system. According to Ramsay Muir, the bi-party system establishes the primacy of the cabinet over the legislature and establishes a kind of cabinet dictatorship. In a multi-party system the legislature, by grouping and counter-grouping, can get rid of the despised cabinet. The bi-party system has a tendency to create a kind of despotism of the majority parties which may ruffle the wishes of the minority.

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Under a multi-party system this is not possible because one single party may not be able to form the government and so will have to depend on the cooperation of other smaller parties. Multi-party system has the advantage over the bi-party system in one big way. This advantage is that a multi-party system represents all shades of opinion before the voters. In a bi-party system the voters are left with no option but to elect either of the two parties. They may not in heart like any of them. So in a multi-party system the voters are free to make their own choice from the varieties of parties before them.

In a multi-party system the various political parties can formulate different and progressive programmes in consonance with the wishes of the people. Through public meetings, newspapers, radio and television the parties can come close to the people to accept their views. When there are only two parties, the programme and policy of the two parties are already known to the people and there is, as such, no rapport between the political parties and the public opinion. When public opinion demands the creation of a new party, that is also done.


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So in a multi-party system political parties and public opinion go hand in hand. In a two-party system there is a despotism of the political parties in the sense that the parties there ride rough-shod over the wishes of the people. This adamant attitude of the parties is but natural because they know that they will come to power today or tomorrow.

In a many party system the prospect of ruling the country is to be widely shared by all the parties. As a result, no single party can grow despotic or adamant. Thus multi-party system is in line with democratic principles. A government in a multi-party system does not last long. So we find that in France between and under the same Premier there were eleven governments.

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In an unstable government the administration is bound to be inefficient and chaotic. There can be no consistent policy of the government under such conditions. When the cabinet is changing frequently the country is run, not by the elected representatives, but by the salaried bureaucracy. In a multi-party system it so happens that not a single party can command clear majority to form the government. As a result, the government is formed with the combination of two or more parties. A coalition government is proverbially weak, because it may fall any moment the partner-party withdraws its support.

So one party in the government has to placate the other party in the same government. Sometimes principles are forsaken to keep the disgruntled party happy. The net result is that the coalition government becomes weak from the day of its inception and there can be no tenacity of purpose. Laski, a serious flaw of the many party system is that nobody knows when the government will be formed after the fall of the existing government.

It may be necessary to hold a fresh election to clinch the issue. In a many party system no party may attain absolute majority or may represent the majority of the voters. It may come to power by a slender majority over the other parties. In this way, the party that forms the government may not get majority -votes. So the musical chair may be won by a party that does not have majority votes of the electorate. In — 52 general elections to the Lok Sabha, which is the lower house of the Indian parliament, the Congress got So the inherent danger in a multi-party system is that it may establish the rule of the minority over the majority.

A dignified opposition, which is the sign of healthy parliamentary practice, is not to be found in a multi-party system. In the welter of myriads of parties it is not possible to locate the opposition party. As a result, the dignity associated to the opposition party and its leader is conspicuous by its absence in a multi-party system. There is an inner wheel in the political parties and in the government, be it democratic or totalitarian, pervading the legislature, executive, judiciary and bureaucracy that act and interact overtly and covertly to bring pressure to bear on the policy and functions of the government.

That inner wheel is called, the pressure groups or interest groups. There is a common thread that connects together human beings whether in the ethnic, religious, professional or any social or economic behaviour that holds together and gives rise to a group consciousness.

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This group has identical interest on certain planes or fronts. When this group comes to play its role, keeping its interest uppermost in its mind, in the political life it is called a interest group or pressure group. This type of influence is seen present in all types of government, democratic or dictatorial, presidential or parliamentary. The interest groups instead of holding the reins of government, work from behind the government by exerting pressure upon it to go in the lines of the interests of the groups.

The pressure so exercised goes a long way to influence the policy of the government. The definition of S.

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It must be a mass of activities, not a mere collection of some individuals. It must at the same time be a patterned process instead of a static form;.

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It must live and act among group interactions that are sufficiently and frequently patterned to produce activities of specific directions;. The positivistic interest must be the sum total of the policy-oriented and directional activities;.

The group must be genuine as against coincidental in interest with individual members having divergent interests other than one forming the group;. The number of the members, intensity and forms of organisation will determine the strength of the group;. Each and every activity of the group will not be political, its nature will be political only when the group will try to mould the government through any agency or organ of the government;. In a bid to handle the fights among the various pressure groups, the government will evolve a policy and programme of adjustment.

Pressure groups of a country may take different forms and shapes. The industrialists, manufacturers and entrepreneurs form the business groups. A vast majority of the urban population working in the industries and factories go to form the labour groups.

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The professional groups consist of teachers, lawyers, doctors, engineers and technicians. Since religion is a big group-cementing factor, several recognised religious bodies are distinct pressure groups. The terrorists or the militants cannot be excluded from the pressure circle.

They are called the anomic units. Thus business, peasants, labour, profession, religion, anomic are the major categories of pressure groups. Although every individual has a right to see his interest protected and his views to have a say in the government, it is impossible for a man to do so because in that case there will be a big chaos if all and every opinion is to be considered by the government.

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It is found more practical and useful if some individuals form a group on the basis of their common thread of interest. This group can say and work for the members forming the group. This pressure group is the vehicle of hopes and aspirations of the individuals in it.


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  6. In this way, the pressure group acts as the intermediate body between the ruler and the ruled. Secondly, the pressure group provides the ordinary people the opportunity to form a kind of identity of interest with others and, in this way, organise themselves into a unit. This enables them to express themselves in public life. Thirdly, the pressure groups enable the government to have the service of the specialised bodies and the know-how of delicate matters like medical profession and engineering skills.

    If these groups were not organised, the government would have been in the dark and roam in the darkness and beat about the bush. So the government has a first-hand information of the views of the pressure groups representing various interest groups. Fourthly, the pressure groups in a democracy have a big role.

    In between the two general elections, the pressure groups oversee the activities of the government and catch the government on the wrong leg. Since elections are far away, the groups-presenting various interests rather than the electorate-corrects and moulds the government.