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Share this course via email. Prerequisites College English and preliminary research training. Interested in this course for your Business or Team? Train your employees in the most in-demand topics, with edX for Business. Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.
How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section. If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used.
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Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain? This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text.
Structure of a Scientific Manuscript
Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion. You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester. This isn't a diary. Use appropriate methods of showing data.
How to write a scientific paper—Writing the methods section | Pulmonology
Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did. If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results". For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes.
Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy". If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary. Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis?
Publishing in the Sciences
Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture? End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant.
This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza. There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places:. Scarlet thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus Indigo and Mauve, and wombat Magenta, et al.
In the References section list citations in alphabetical order. Indigo, A. Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science , Magenta, S.
tervaa.tk Wombat genetics. In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q. New York: Columbia University Press. Scarlet, S. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. Journal of Unusual Results 36, Unfortunately, they're all the same page. Write accurately Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. A student who tried not to repeat the word "hamster" produced this confusing sentence: "When I put the hamster in a cage with the other animals, the little mammals began to play.
Instead of: The rats were injected with the drug.
Temperature has an effect on the reaction. Temperature affects the reaction. I used solutions in various concentrations. Less food can't count numbers of food Fewer animals can count numbers of animals. A large amount of food can't count them A large number of animals can count them.